Specifying Revision Sets

Mercurial supports a functional language for selecting a set of revisions.

The language supports a number of predicates which are joined by infix operators. Parenthesis can be used for grouping.

Identifiers such as branch names may need quoting with single or double quotes if they contain characters like "-" or if they match one of the predefined predicates.

Special characters can be used in quoted identifiers by escaping them, e.g., "\n" is interpreted as a newline. To prevent them from being interpreted, strings can be prefixed with "r", e.g. "r'...'".

There is a single prefix operator:

"not x"
Changesets not in x. Short form is "! x".

These are the supported infix operators:

"x::y"
A DAG range, meaning all changesets that are descendants of x and ancestors of y, including x and y themselves. If the first endpoint is left out, this is equivalent to "ancestors(y)", if the second is left out it is equivalent to "descendants(x)".

An alternative syntax is "x..y".

"x:y"
All changesets with revision numbers between x and y, both inclusive. Either endpoint can be left out, they default to 0 and tip.
"x and y"
The intersection of changesets in x and y. Short form is "x & y".
"x or y"
The union of changesets in x and y. There are two alternative short forms: "x | y" and "x + y".
"x - y"
Changesets in x but not in y.
"x^n"
The nth parent of x, n == 0, 1, or 2. For n == 0, x; for n == 1, the first parent of each changeset in x; for n == 2, the second parent of changeset in x.
"x~n"
The nth first ancestor of x; "x~0" is x; "x~3" is "x^^^".

There is a single postfix operator:

"x^"
Equivalent to "x^1", the first parent of each changeset in x.

The following predicates are supported:

Changesets that add a file matching pattern.

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file or a directory.

"all()"
All changesets, the same as "0:tip".
"ancestor(*changeset)"
A greatest common ancestor of the changesets.

Accepts 0 or more changesets. Will return empty list when passed no args. Greatest common ancestor of a single changeset is that changeset.

"ancestors(set)"
Changesets that are ancestors of a changeset in set.
"author(string)"
Alias for "user(string)".
"bisect(string)"
Changesets marked in the specified bisect status:
• "range" : csets taking part in the bisection
• "pruned" : csets that are goods, bads or skipped
• "untested" : csets whose fate is yet unknown
• "ignored" : csets ignored due to DAG topology
• "current" : the cset currently being bisected
"bookmark([name])"
The named bookmark or all bookmarks.

If "name" starts with "re:", the remainder of the name is treated as a regular expression. To match a bookmark that actually starts with "re:", use the prefix "literal:".

"branch(string or set)"
All changesets belonging to the given branch or the branches of the given changesets.

If "string" starts with "re:", the remainder of the name is treated as a regular expression. To match a branch that actually starts with "re:", use the prefix "literal:".

"branchpoint()"
Changesets with more than one child.
"bumped()"
Mutable changesets marked as successors of public changesets.

Only non-public and non-obsolete changesets can be "bumped".

"bundle()"
Changesets in the bundle.

Bundle must be specified by the -R option.

"children(set)"
Child changesets of changesets in set.
"closed()"
Changeset is closed.
"contains(pattern)"
The revision's manifest contains a file matching pattern (but might not modify it). See "hg help patterns" for information about file patterns.

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file exactly for efficiency.

"converted([id])"
Changesets converted from the given identifier in the old repository if present, or all converted changesets if no identifier is specified.
"date(interval)"
Changesets within the interval, see "hg help dates".
"desc(string)"
Search commit message for string. The match is case-insensitive.
"descendants(set)"
Changesets which are descendants of changesets in set.
"destination([set])"
Changesets that were created by a graft, transplant or rebase operation, with the given revisions specified as the source. Omitting the optional set is the same as passing all().
"divergent()"
Final successors of changesets with an alternative set of final successors.
"draft()"
Changeset in draft phase.
"extinct()"
Obsolete changesets with obsolete descendants only.
"extra(label, [value])"
Changesets with the given label in the extra metadata, with the given optional value.

If "value" starts with "re:", the remainder of the value is treated as a regular expression. To match a value that actually starts with "re:", use the prefix "literal:".

"file(pattern)"
Changesets affecting files matched by pattern.

For a faster but less accurate result, consider using "filelog()" instead.

This predicate uses "glob:" as the default kind of pattern.

"filelog(pattern)"
Changesets connected to the specified filelog.

For performance reasons, visits only revisions mentioned in the file-level filelog, rather than filtering through all changesets (much faster, but doesn't include deletes or duplicate changes). For a slower, more accurate result, use "file()".

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file exactly for efficiency.

"first(set, [n])"
An alias for limit().
"follow([file])"
An alias for "::." (ancestors of the working copy's first parent). If a filename is specified, the history of the given file is followed, including copies.
"grep(regex)"
Like "keyword(string)" but accepts a regex. Use "grep(r'...')" to ensure special escape characters are handled correctly. Unlike "keyword(string)", the match is case-sensitive.
Changeset is a named branch head.
Members of set with no children in set.
"hidden()"
Hidden changesets.
"id(string)"
Revision non-ambiguously specified by the given hex string prefix.
"keyword(string)"
Search commit message, user name, and names of changed files for string. The match is case-insensitive.
"last(set, [n])"
Last n members of set, defaulting to 1.
"limit(set, [n])"
First n members of set, defaulting to 1.
"matching(revision [, field])"
Changesets in which a given set of fields match the set of fields in the selected revision or set.

To match more than one field pass the list of fields to match separated by spaces (e.g. "author description").

Valid fields are most regular revision fields and some special fields.

Regular revision fields are "description", "author", "branch", "date", "files", "phase", "parents", "substate", "user" and "diff". Note that "author" and "user" are synonyms. "diff" refers to the contents of the revision. Two revisions matching their "diff" will also match their "files".

Special fields are "summary" and "metadata": "summary" matches the first line of the description. "metadata" is equivalent to matching "description user date" (i.e. it matches the main metadata fields).

"metadata" is the default field which is used when no fields are specified. You can match more than one field at a time.

"max(set)"
Changeset with highest revision number in set.
"merge()"
Changeset is a merge changeset.
"min(set)"
Changeset with lowest revision number in set.
"modifies(pattern)"
Changesets modifying files matched by pattern.

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file or a directory.

"obsolete()"
Mutable changeset with a newer version.
"only(set, [set])"
Changesets that are ancestors of the first set that are not ancestors of any other head in the repo. If a second set is specified, the result is ancestors of the first set that are not ancestors of the second set (i.e. ::<set1> - ::<set2>).
"origin([set])"
Changesets that were specified as a source for the grafts, transplants or rebases that created the given revisions. Omitting the optional set is the same as passing all(). If a changeset created by these operations is itself specified as a source for one of these operations, only the source changeset for the first operation is selected.
"outgoing([path])"
Changesets not found in the specified destination repository, or the default push location.
"p1([set])"
First parent of changesets in set, or the working directory.
"p2([set])"
Second parent of changesets in set, or the working directory.
"parents([set])"
The set of all parents for all changesets in set, or the working directory.
"present(set)"
An empty set, if any revision in set isn't found; otherwise, all revisions in set.

If any of specified revisions is not present in the local repository, the query is normally aborted. But this predicate allows the query to continue even in such cases.

"public()"
Changeset in public phase.
"remote([id [,path]])"
Local revision that corresponds to the given identifier in a remote repository, if present. Here, the '.' identifier is a synonym for the current local branch.
"removes(pattern)"
Changesets which remove files matching pattern.

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file or a directory.

"rev(number)"
Revision with the given numeric identifier.
"reverse(set)"
Reverse order of set.
"roots(set)"
Changesets in set with no parent changeset in set.
"secret()"
Changeset in secret phase.
"sort(set[, [-]key...])"
Sort set by keys. The default sort order is ascending, specify a key as "-key" to sort in descending order.

The keys can be:

• "rev" for the revision number,
• "branch" for the branch name,
• "desc" for the commit message (description),
• "user" for user name ("author" can be used as an alias),
• "date" for the commit date
"tag([name])"
The specified tag by name, or all tagged revisions if no name is given.

If "name" starts with "re:", the remainder of the name is treated as a regular expression. To match a tag that actually starts with "re:", use the prefix "literal:".

"unstable()"
Non-obsolete changesets with obsolete ancestors.
"user(string)"
User name contains string. The match is case-insensitive.

If "string" starts with "re:", the remainder of the string is treated as a regular expression. To match a user that actually contains "re:", use the prefix "literal:".

New predicates (known as "aliases") can be defined, using any combination of existing predicates or other aliases. An alias definition looks like:

```<alias> = <definition>
```

in the "revsetalias" section of a Mercurial configuration file. Arguments of the form "\$1", "\$2", etc. are substituted from the alias into the definition.

For example,

```[revsetalias]
d(\$1) = sort(\$1, date)
rs(\$1, \$2) = reverse(sort(\$1, \$2))
```

defines three aliases, "h", "d", and "rs". "rs(0:tip, author)" is exactly equivalent to "reverse(sort(0:tip, author))".

Command line equivalents for "hg log":

```-f    ->  ::.
-d x  ->  date(x)
-k x  ->  keyword(x)
-m    ->  merge()
-u x  ->  user(x)
-b x  ->  branch(x)
-P x  ->  !::x
-l x  ->  limit(expr, x)
```

Some sample queries:

• Changesets on the default branch:
```hg log -r "branch(default)"
```
• Changesets on the default branch since tag 1.5 (excluding merges):
```hg log -r "branch(default) and 1.5:: and not merge()"
```
```hg log -r "head() and not closed()"
```
• Changesets between tags 1.3 and 1.5 mentioning "bug" that affect "hgext/*":
```hg log -r "1.3::1.5 and keyword(bug) and file('hgext/*')"
```
• Changesets committed in May 2008, sorted by user:
```hg log -r "sort(date('May 2008'), user)"
```
• Changesets mentioning "bug" or "issue" that are not in a tagged release:
```hg log -r "(keyword(bug) or keyword(issue)) and not ancestors(tag())"
```