### changeset 1297:41484478a32d

Updating documentation
author Adam Chlipala Tue, 07 Sep 2010 09:47:06 -0400 0d3d9e653829 e665527fce1c CHANGELOG doc/manual.tex 2 files changed, 26 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-) [+]
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--- a/CHANGELOG	Tue Sep 07 09:21:51 2010 -0400
+++ b/CHANGELOG	Tue Sep 07 09:47:06 2010 -0400
@@ -3,7 +3,12 @@
========

- Polymorphic variants (see Basis.variant)
+- New 'onError' directive for .urp files
- (* *) and <!-- --> comments in XML
+- Basis.classes, Basis.confirm, and Basis.tryDml
+- Invocations like 'urweb foo' will compile foo.ur as a single-file project,
+  even if no foo.urp exists
+- Bug fixes and optimization improvements

========
20100603
--- a/doc/manual.tex	Tue Sep 07 09:21:51 2010 -0400
+++ b/doc/manual.tex	Tue Sep 07 09:47:06 2010 -0400
@@ -147,6 +147,7 @@
\item \texttt{jsFunc Module.ident=name} gives the JavaScript name of an FFI value.
\item \texttt{library FILENAME} parses \texttt{FILENAME.urp} and merges its contents with the rest of the current file's contents.  If \texttt{FILENAME.urp} doesn't exist, the compiler also tries \texttt{FILENAME/lib.urp}.
\item \texttt{link FILENAME} adds \texttt{FILENAME} to the list of files to be passed to the GCC linker at the end of compilation.  This is most useful for importing extra libraries needed by new FFI modules.
+\item \texttt{onError Module.var} changes the handling of fatal application errors.  Instead of displaying a default, ugly error 500 page, the error page will be generated by calling function \texttt{Module.var} on a piece of XML representing the error message.  The error handler should have type $\mt{xbody} \to \mt{transaction} \; \mt{page}$.  Note that the error handler \emph{cannot} be in the application's main module, since that would register it as explicitly callable via URLs.
\item \texttt{path NAME=VALUE} creates a mapping from \texttt{NAME} to \texttt{VALUE}.  This mapping may be used at the beginnings of filesystem paths given to various other configuration directives.  A path like \texttt{\$NAME/rest} is expanded to \texttt{VALUE/rest}. There is an initial mapping from the empty name (for paths like \texttt{\$/list}) to the directory where the Ur/Web standard library is installed.  If you accept the default \texttt{configure} options, this directory is \texttt{/usr/local/lib/urweb/ur}.
\item \texttt{prefix PREFIX} sets the prefix included before every URI within the generated application.  The default is \texttt{/}.
\item \texttt{profile} generates an executable that may be used with gprof.
@@ -278,6 +279,7 @@
\item \texttt{-static}: Link the runtime system statically.  The default is to link against dynamic libraries.
\end{itemize}

+There is an additional convenience method for invoking \texttt{urweb}.  If the main argument is \texttt{FOO}, and \texttt{FOO.ur} exists but \texttt{FOO.urp} doesn't, then the invocation is interpreted as if called on a \texttt{.urp} file containing \texttt{FOO} as its only main entry, with an additional \texttt{rewrite all FOO/*} directive.

\section{Ur Syntax}

@@ -311,6 +313,8 @@

This version of the manual doesn't include operator precedences; see \texttt{src/urweb.grm} for that.

+As in the ML language family, the syntax \texttt{(* ... *)} is used for (nestable) comments.  Within XML literals, Ur/Web also supports the usual \texttt{<!-- ... -->} XML comments.
+
\subsection{\label{core}Core Syntax}

\emph{Kinds} classify types and other compile-time-only entities.  Each kind in the grammar is listed with a description of the sort of data it classifies.
@@ -1283,6 +1287,13 @@

The only unusual element of this list is the $\mt{blob}$ type, which stands for binary sequences.  Simple blobs can be created from strings via $\mt{Basis.textBlob}$.  Blobs will also be generated from HTTP file uploads.

+Ur also supports \emph{polymorphic variants}, a dual to extensible records that has been popularized by OCaml.  A type $\mt{variant} \; r$ represents an $n$-ary sum type, with one constructor for each field of record $r$.  Each constructor $c$ takes an argument of type $r.c$; the type $\{\}$ can be used to simulate'' a nullary constructor.  The \cd{make} function builds a variant value, while \cd{match} implements pattern-matching, with match cases represented as records of functions.
+$$\begin{array}{l} + \mt{con} \; \mt{variant} :: \{\mt{Type}\} \to \mt{Type} \\ + \mt{val} \; \mt{make} : \mt{nm} :: \mt{Name} \to \mt{t} ::: \mt{Type} \to \mt{ts} ::: \{\mt{Type}\} \to [[\mt{nm}] \sim \mt{ts}] \Rightarrow \mt{t} \to \mt{variant} \; ([\mt{nm} = \mt{t}] \rc \mt{ts}) \\ + \mt{val} \; \mt{match} : \mt{ts} ::: \{\mt{Type}\} \to \mt{t} ::: \mt{Type} \to \mt{variant} \; \mt{ts} \to \(\mt{map} \; (\lambda \mt{t'} \Rightarrow \mt{t'} \to \mt{t}) \; \mt{ts}) \to \mt{t} +\end{array}$$
+
Another important generic Ur element comes at the beginning of \texttt{top.urs}.

$$\begin{array}{l} @@ -1750,6 +1761,12 @@ \mt{val} \; \mt{dml} : \mt{dml} \to \mt{transaction} \; \mt{unit} \end{array}$$

+The function $\mt{Basis.dml}$ will trigger a fatal application error if the command fails, for instance, because a data integrity constraint is violated.  An alternate function returns an error message as a string instead.
+
+$$\begin{array}{l} + \mt{val} \; \mt{tryDml} : \mt{dml} \to \mt{transaction} \; (\mt{option} \; \mt{string}) +\end{array}$$
+
Properly-typed records may be used to form $\mt{INSERT}$ commands.
$$\begin{array}{l} \mt{val} \; \mt{insert} : \mt{fields} ::: \{\mt{Type}\} \to \mt{sql\_table} \; \mt{fields} \\ @@ -1808,7 +1825,7 @@ \hspace{.1in} \to \mt{tag} \; (\mt{attrsGiven} \rc \mt{attrsAbsent}) \; \mt{ctxOuter} \; \mt{ctxInner} \; \mt{useOuter} \; \mt{bindOuter} \\ \hspace{.1in} \to \mt{xml} \; \mt{ctxInner} \; \mt{useInner} \; \mt{bindInner} \to \mt{xml} \; \mt{ctxOuter} \; (\mt{useOuter} \rc \mt{useInner}) \; (\mt{bindOuter} \rc \mt{bindInner}) \end{array}$$
-Note that any tag may be assigned a CSS class.  This is the sole way of making use of the values produced by $\mt{style}$ declarations.  Ur/Web itself doesn't deal with the syntax or semantics of style sheets; they can be linked via URLs with \texttt{link} tags.  However, Ur/Web does make it easy to calculate upper bounds on usage of CSS classes through program analysis.
+Note that any tag may be assigned a CSS class.  This is the sole way of making use of the values produced by $\mt{style}$ declarations.  Ur/Web itself doesn't deal with the syntax or semantics of style sheets; they can be linked via URLs with \texttt{link} tags.  However, Ur/Web does make it easy to calculate upper bounds on usage of CSS classes through program analysis.  The function $\mt{Basis.classes}$ can be used to specify a list of CSS classes for a single tag.

Two XML fragments may be concatenated.
$$\begin{array}{l} @@ -1837,9 +1854,10 @@ \subsubsection{The Basics} -Clients can open alert dialog boxes, in the usual annoying JavaScript way. +Clients can open alert and confirm dialog boxes, in the usual annoying JavaScript way.$$\begin{array}{l}
-  \mt{val} \; \mt{alert} : \mt{string} \to \mt{transaction} \; \mt{unit}
+  \mt{val} \; \mt{alert} : \mt{string} \to \mt{transaction} \; \mt{unit} \\
+  \mt{val} \; \mt{confirm} : \mt{string} \to \mt{transaction} \; \mt{bool}
\end{array}

Any transaction may be run in a new thread with the $\mt{spawn}$ function.